The 2015 MRS Fall Meeting was held in Boston, MA from November 29 – December 4. Recorded sessions include several award and keynote talks, three tutorial sessions and highlighted talks from the technical program.
At Kalamazoo College, we teach only one introductory physics course sequence, bringing together students from physics, pre-engineering, chemistry, and biology. Our students declare a major in their second year, so our combined course gives students interested in multidisciplinary science maximum flexibility in choosing a major. The sequence is calculus-based, and typically enrolls about 100 students per year. About 60% of the students are Sophomore Chemistry majors, while about 30% are First-years, mostly intereted in Physics and/or our program in dual-degree engineering. About 50% of the students have strong interests in medical careers, and perhaps 25% will eventually enter medical school. Because our students are diverse in preparation and academic interests, our experiences should have broad applicability within the STEM subjects. Over the last four years, we have transitioned the structure of our introductory physics sequence from a lecture/lab/discussion format with some interactive engagement to a studio/workshop format where small-group problem solving and discussion are combined with hands-on and computer-based activities. We have also shifted from traditional homework/midterm/final exam assessments to a mastery-based system of daily quizzes on explicit learning objectives, graded on a pass/fail scale, with some opportunities for reassessment. Our studio format is essentially a “flipped” classroom. Students are responsible for reading before class, enforced with daily reading quizzes, so the bulk of our class time can be spent on problem solving and activities, including interactive computer simulations. To engage our diverse student population, we prioritize topics that are broadly applicable and exercises that highlight applications in other disciplines. To measure the efficacy of the changes to our course format and assessment structure, we use physics-specific concept inventories (Force Concept Inventory and Conceptual Survey on Electricity and Magnetism) to measure learning gain through pre- and post-testing. We also use an attitude survey (Maryland Physics Expectation Survey), as well as a general test of scientific reasoning ability (Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning) and course evaluation data. The first full year of implementation of the studio format was marked by the highest learning gains we had measured in ten years of data on the concept inventories, but also by high levels of student dissatisfaction on the course evaluations. Subsequent modifications have improved student satisfaction with the course sequence, while learning gains have returned to similar levels to those measured in our previous format. Similarly, we see an inverse relationship between learning gains on the concept inventories and attitudes about the nature of physics and how to learn it, as measured by the Maryland Physics Expectation Survey.Speaker(s):
In the last half century, critical dimensions in electronic devices have been reduced from micrometers to a few tens of nanometers on a pace that has been consistent for decades. Lithography now touches many areas of science ranging from electronics to biology and the life sciences. To continue on this remarkable path predicted in 1965 and to approach molecular scale pattern formation, new breakthroughs in patterning methods are needed. This talk will focus on new concepts, methods and materials, in particular efforts in directed self-assembly (DSA) and short wavelength extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. DSA harnesses the phase behavior of block copolymers to create patterns defined by the microstructure of the polymer. In contrast, EUV patterning enables the production of arbitrary patterns at similar length scales. These and other advances in lithography will be described. Biography Christopher Ober is the Francis Bard Professor of Materials Engineering at Cornell University. He received his B.Sc. in Honours Chemistry (Co-op) from the University of Waterloo, Canada in 1978 and his Ph.D. in Polymer Science & Engineering from the University of Massachusetts (Amherst) in 1982. Ober joined Cornell's Department of Materials Science and Engineering in 1986. Prior to that he was on the research staff at the Xerox Research Centre of Canada working on marking materials. He served as Interim Dean of the College of Engineering. He has pioneered new materials for photolithography and studies the biology materials interface. A Fellow of the ACS, APS and AAAS, his awards include the 2013 SPSJ International Award, the 2009 Gutenberg Research Award (Gutenberg University, Mainz), a Humboldt Research Prize in 2007 and the 2006 ACS Award in Applied Polymer Science. In 2014 he was a JSPS Fellow at TokyoTech.Speaker(s):
Cancer encompasses a broad family of more than 100 complex diseases that share the phenomenon of cell populations that undergo uncontrolled division and also have the potential to invade other tissues in the body. Our ability to understand the vast complexity of cancer, much less clinically control it, is only as good as the tools we have available to study it. For materials scientists seeking to understand the challenges and opportunities, the tutorial will provide an overview of two important fields of technology development: modeling systems and analysis tools.
Materials science is a fundamental feature driving progress in both of these critical fields, yet more is required from the materials science community to further advance capabilities on both fronts. For example, new hydrogel materials for 3D cell culture were integrated in microfluidics for modeling tumor angiogenesis. Novel magnetic nanomaterials were exploited for tumor targeting and biomarker detection. Symposium K will highlight groundbreaking advances that span a broad landscape of emerging molecular- and cellular-scale technologies focused on cancer.
Part I of the tutorial discusses the evolution of microsystems for modeling tumor development, progression and metastasis. In particular, descriptions on tumor vascular modeling capturing early stage mechanisms of metastatic potential and characterizing epithelial to mesenchymal transition will provide materials scientists with an understanding of critical events of tumorigenesis, proliferation and progression.
Part II focuses on innovative molecular and cellular detection technologies, especially for cancer diagnosis and monitoring. A broad spectrum of sensor technologies that have been applied towards targeting and tracking molecular markers, circulating tumor cells, and trafficking vesicles used to identify cancer is discussed.
Pursuit of scientific discovery is the central underpinning concept of modern civilization. The immense investment in government-sponsored research in the U.S. has laid the foundation for national scientific, economic, and military security in the 21st century. However, the doubling of scientific publications every nine years jeopardizes this foundation because it is becoming increasingly difficult to track the vast majority of relevant research, and hence explore and evaluate relevant information.
For scientists to maintain their awareness of relevant scientific work and continue to make advances in fundamental and applied research, original approaches that utilize newly emerging computational methods and machine-learning capabilities to accelerate scientific progress must be developed.
This tutorial presents novel computational analytic methods capable of unlocking the human knowledge that’s been documented and archived in the unstructured text of hundreds of millions of scientific publications to extend scientific discovery beyond human capacity.
The instructors explore pathways for visualizing and comprehending knowledge propagation, evolution, and assessment of scientific research fronts, and methods for quantifying research impact within the scientific community and beyond.
Maria Tchernycheva reviews the forefront of applied research enabled by nitride (lll-N) semiconductor nanowires. She focuses on nanowire optoelectronic applications such as light emission and photodetection to explain how these nanomaterials have the potential to boost device performance, improve energy efficiency, reduce cost and bring new functionalities. Device fabrication and characterization is described in detail along with recent advances towards flexible nanowire devices.Speaker(s):
Comprised of talks and an expert panel discussion, the session will examine the intertwining of materials developments and engineering applications. The focus of discussion will be on the translation of materials research into real applications, and how applications themselves push materials research forward. We encourage audience participation throughout the session, particularly during the panel discussion.Speaker(s):
Interventions on graduate curricula to integrate novel scientific concepts are common practice. The fast-evolving character of graduate curricula, however, does not translate down the education structure. Indeed, scientific curricula in undergraduate and specially, in K-12 education have through decades been the subject of discussion, often debating between placing emphasis on science content knowledge or on the applications derived from it. The notion of adding content and the absence of provisions to reduce, or even suppress, previous content has been pervasive, leading to impasse. In this paper, we explore a novel educative scenario, where technology still in developmental phases is brought to a classroom environment, providing students with early exposure to still-to-be-elucidated scientific phenomena. This new ecosystem has been identified recently as the Lab-to-Market-to-Classroom. It was first introduced as a work plan for the dissemination of refreshable, photoactuatable tactile displays to the visually impaired (enabled by smart nanocomposites), serving both Lab-to-Market and Lab-to- Classroom initiatives. This topic is timely as it resonates with the development of curricula and activities involving novel and newly discovered materials. In this discussion, structure and implications of the Lab-to-Market-to-Classroom will be developed further. This work plan was designed in accordance with the logic model, which identifies an overlap amongst classroom, market, and laboratory. This overlap seemed to nucleate when a technology in developmental phase is deployed in a classroom with high affinity to such technology. In this scheme, students are stakeholders whom help decide both content and applications to be included in the developing curriculum, and provide technology feedback, effectively leading to increased consumer acceptance. The identified Lab-to-Market-to-Classroom continuum could be the missing link in our efforts to nurture sustainable scientific, technological, and curricular development.Speaker(s):
Relevant, hands-on instruction is an effective way to reach any student, but can be particularly effective for under-represented groups. For dyslexic students, who normally lag behind their peers in reading due to difficulties in recognizing and processing certain symbols, the use of hands-on demonstration and individual manipulation of 3D objects to relay scientific concepts is preferred to reading- or writing-based tasks. Through interactions with the Trefny Institute for Educational Innovation, we have developed an age- and ability-appropriate module explaining ceramic processing for the Rocky Mountain Dyslexia Camp, a 5-week summer program for children aged 7-13 who are diagnosed with dyslexia. In developing new content for the camp, the module relies almost entirely on hands-on, discovery-based activities. These activities show the students that they are capable of successfully conducting scientific inquiry and provide an opportunity to promote interest in STEM careers for students who, without intervention, might not be encouraged to pursue such an academically demanding path.Speaker(s):