2014 MRS Spring Meeting

Apr 21, 2014 ‐ Apr 25, 2014


The 2014 MRS Spring Meeting & Exhibit featured 57 technical sessions and was chaired by Jose A. Garrido, Sergei V. Kalinin, Edson R. Leite, David Parrillo and Molly Stevens.


Sessions

Panel Discussion - Different Approaches to Commercializing Materials Research

Apr 21, 2014 1:30pm ‐ Apr 21, 2014 3:00pm

Identification: TIF.02

There are many different ways to transitioning advanced materials research from a laboratory to commercial application, both within an organization and through outside partnerships. These approaches include internal innovation efforts, university-based incubators, investment-based incubators, state and federally focused support programs, and private-public partnerships. This session features a panel discussion with experts from various academic, public and private organizations.

Speaker(s):

Fundamentals of Nonclassical Crystallization

Apr 21, 2014 1:30pm ‐ Apr 21, 2014 5:00pm

Identification: SS

The basic concepts of nonclassical crystal growth and mesocrystal formation will be presented. Introductory topics, such as the thermodynamics of the crystal surface, crystallographic alignment, the role of crystalline defects (twinning, discordances), spontaneous particle alignment, and oriented attachment will be covered. Aspects about kinetic models to describe non-classical crystal growth will also be reviewed.

The fundamental techniques for detecting and characterizing nonclassical crystallization and crystal growth events will be covered. The application of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), especially cryo-TEM, high-resolution TEM, and fluid cell TEM, will be emphasized. Correlative techniques, such as X-ray diffraction and scattering as well as spectroscopic methods, will be covered in order to support scholars in research planning.

Speaker(s):

Recognizing and Addressing "Big Data" Problems

Apr 21, 2014 1:30pm ‐ Apr 21, 2014 5:00pm

Identification: YY

The tutorial will focus on recognizing problems that are addressable by "big data" approaches, and how to access knowledge and resources to accomplish such approaches.

David Morgan will introduce the ways in which microscopists generally encounter "big data," and briefly discuss what must be done differently to handle such data. Most importantly, he will discuss how to recognize when your project can benefit from these different approaches.

Peter Wang will follow with an in-depth discussion of data management techniques using Python, providing practical examples of addressing the concerns that were identified in the first segment.

The tutorial will conclude with a panel discussion of available resources for accomplishing "big data" analyses: where to find computing resources, who to talk to, and how to express your need in terms that allow computer scientists to provide the best assistance.

Speaker(s):

Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles with Electropolymerizable π-Conjugated Systems for a Neuro-Inspired Memristive Nanoparticle Organic Synapse-Transistor

Apr 21, 2014 2:00pm ‐ Apr 21, 2014 2:15pm

Identification: C1.02

Nanoparticle Organic Memory Field-Effect Transistors (NOMFET) are molecule-based devices that exhibit the main behavior of a biological spiking synapse. This behavior is obtained by virtue of the combination of two properties of the NOMFET: the transconductance gain of the transistor and the memory effect due to the presence of nanoparticles (NPs) which are used as nanoscale capacitors to store the electrical charges, and which are embedded into an organic semiconducting layer [1]. Thus, the transconductance of the transistor can be dynamically tuned by the amount of charge in the NPs.

In this context, we present here a novel method for the elaboration of NOMFET active materials based on the electrochemical deposition of gold NPs grafted with alkanethiol-terminated π-conjugated precursors combining low oxidation potential and high reactivity. The straightforward electropolymerization of these new precursors leads to the formation of a semiconducting network in which the electronic and transport properties and the charging/discharging speed of the gold NPs can be modulated. Such hybrid material could advantageously replace the pentacene layer generally used in NOMFETs. This novel approach is based on previously demonstrated enhancement of charge-tunneling across monolayers of SAMs of alkanethiol-bithiophenic systems on a planar gold surface after electrochemical conversion into more extended conjugated systems [2].

The synthesis of the precursors and nanoparticles will be described and the morphology and electronic properties of the hybrid electropolymerized films will be discussed with regard to the behavior of the resulting NOMFET-devices.

Work supported by European Union - FET project SYMONE (#318597) and ANR project SYNAPTOR (#12BS0301001)1. F. Alibart, S. Pleutin, D. Guerin, C. Novembre, S. Lenfant, K. Lmimouni, C. Gamrat, D. Vuillaume, Adv. Funct. Mater. 2010, 20, 330-337.2. M. Oçafrain, T. K. Tran, P. Blanchard, S. Lenfant, S. Godey, D. Vuillaume, J. Roncali, Adv. Funct. Mater. 2008, 18, 2163-2171.

Speaker(s):
  • Ali Yassin, Moltech-Anjou, CNRS, University of Angers

Understanding the Electrical Properties of Graphene Using the Quantum Capacitance Effect

Apr 21, 2014 2:00pm ‐ Apr 21, 2014 2:30pm

Identification: OO2.02

The quantum capacitance effect in graphene can readily be observed experimentally due to the low density of states near the Dirac energy. In particular, in metal-oxide-graphene structures with thin, high-K dielectrics, the quantum capacitance strongly affects the measurable capacitance as a function of gate voltage.

In this work, we show how the quantum capacitance can be utilized to understand numerous properties of graphene, the surrounding dielectrics and even absorbed molecules on the graphene surface. Furthermore, we show that the quantum capacitance can be utilized to realize numerous novel graphene-based devices, including wireless sensors and optical modulators. Finally, the prospects for future materials-related investigations and device applications of quantum capacitance in graphene are described.

Speaker(s):

First Application of All-Hot-Wire Encapsulation Barrier on Organic Light Emitting Diode

Apr 21, 2014 2:45pm ‐ Apr 21, 2014 3:00pm

Identification: C1.05

Flexible organic electronic devices (‘plastic electronics’), such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic solar cells, are very sensitive to oxygen and water vapor, which can quickly degrade these devices. An encapsulation barrier is required, preferably producible by thin film deposition directly onto the sensitive devices, with a water vapor permeation rate (WVTR) of < 1 x 10-5 g/m2.day. For devices made on flexible plastic substrates, the barrier should seal the devices all around.

We developed a new organic/inorganic multilayer stack deposited with a single CVD technique. By combining Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) of silicon nitride (SiNx) with initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA), we developed an “all-hot-wire” deposited thin (400 nm thick), optically transparent encapsulation barrier that can be deposited at temperatures below 100°C. Using the Ca WVTR test, we achieved a WVTR of 5 x 10-6 g/m2.day at 60°C and 90% relative humidity, for a simple 3-layer stack.

An additional advantage of the deposition of SiNx from silane and ammonia onto the PGMA layer is that the internal adhesion of the successive layers is exceptionally strong, because the PGMA still has functional epoxy rings owing to the non-destructive plasma-free iCVD method. By HR-TEM and XPS we observe an intermediate SiOxNy layer between the polymer and the nitride layer. The interlayer turns out to be highly beneficial for interlayer adhesion and this is probably one of the reasons for the excellent barrier properties of our multilayer. We present our first results on all-hot-wire direct thin-film encapsulation on working OLED devices. The all-hot-wire method can easily be extended to a roll-to-roll continuous encapsulation technique.

Speaker(s):
  • Ruud Schropp, ECN - Solliance, Eindhoven University of Technology

Business Challenges to Starting a Materials-Based Company

Apr 21, 2014 3:30pm ‐ Apr 21, 2014 5:00pm

Identification: TIF.04

Focusing on the business aspects of starting a company to commercialize a materials technology, session topics will include funding alternatives, IP concerns, maintaining a relationship with the host university, and who to partner with. This session will also address various ways to raise funds-from traditional sources, such as government grants, seed grants from NGO organizations or universities, to traditional sources such as angels and VCs, or partnering with large companies.

Speaker(s):

Polarization Energy in Organic Semiconductors: Impact of Molecular Packing

Apr 21, 2014 3:30pm ‐ Apr 21, 2014 4:00pm

Identification: C2.01

Polarization energy is defined as the energy difference between ionization potentials [or electron affinities] in the gas phase and in the solid state upon addition of a positive [or negative] charge. It is one of the main microscopic parameters governing charge transport in organic semiconductors in general, as well as charge separation at donor/acceptor interfaces in organic solar cells. In this presentation, we discuss how much polarization energy depends on the details of molecular packing. We take pentacene and TIPS-pentacene as representative examples.

Speaker(s):

JCESR Transformation Energy Storage for Transportation and the Electricity Grid

Apr 21, 2014 4:30pm ‐ Apr 21, 2014 5:00pm

Identification: N1.07

The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research combines discovery science, battery design, research prototyping and manufacturing collaboration in a single highly interactive organization to pursue transformational next generation energy storage beyond lithium ion batteries.

JCESR will leave three legacies:

  • A library of fundamental knowledge of the materials and phenomena of energy storage at the atomic and molecular level
  • Two prototypes, one for the grid and one for transportation, that, when scaled to manufacturing will be able to deliver five times the energy density at one-fifth the cost
  • A new paradigm for battery R&D that accelerates the pace of discovery and innovation and significantly shortens the time from discovery to commercialization.

An introduction to JCESR’s vision, mission and legacies will be followed by research highlights illustrating its advances in fundamental science and the promising pathways to transformational battery designs and prototypes.

This work was supported as part of the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, an Energy Innovation Hub funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences.

Speaker(s):
  • George Crabtree, Argonne National Laboratory, Univeristy of Illinois at Chicago

Molecularly Engineered Oligoanilines as Model Systems for the Rational Design of Polyaniline

Apr 21, 2014 4:45pm ‐ Apr 21, 2014 5:00pm

Identification: C2.04

Molecular engineering is an important tool for developing high-performance electronic materials as small changes in intermolecular interactions can lead to significant variations in solid-state packing and electrical properties. However, it is difficult to explicitly decipher the effect of functionalization due to the paracrystalline nature of most conjugated polymers. Here, single crystals of monodisperse oligoanilines with various aromatic substitutions were synthesized to serve as model systems for elucidating the impact of side-chain functionalization on polyaniline, a benchmark conducting polymer commonly used in organic electrodes and sensors. We found that molecular symmetry is a crucial factor for achieving good solid-state packing, while the nature of the substituents offers control over the packing motif that dictates the efficiency of molecular orbital overlap. The differences in carrier transport properties and electronic structures for these molecules were also investigated. Our findings offer powerful insights to the design rules for engineering a highly efficient polyaniline that can potentially improve the performance of the associated organic electronic devices.

Speaker(s):
  • Yue Wang, University of California, Los Angeles, California NanoSystems Institute
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