Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease while Type-2 diabetes (T2D) results from insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Previously, the onset of these two separate diseases was easily distinguished, with children being most at risk for T1D and T2D occurring in overweight adults. However, the dramatic rise in obesity, coupled with the notable increase in T1D, has resulted in a paradigm change, creating a large overlap in these previously discrete patient populations. Delayed diagnosis of T1D can result in severe illness or death and rapid diagnosis of T1D is critical for the efficacy of emerging therapies. However, there is a lack of cost-effective, easy and reliable platform for detecting autoantibodies in the general population. A reliable platform that could be used at ‘the point-of-care’ would change the paradigm of diabetes diagnosis, care, and ultimately prevention. Here we describe the development of a plasmonic gold chip for near-infrared fluorescence enhanced (NIR-FE) detection of islet cell autoantibodies. We demonstrate that this platform has high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of T1D and can be used to discover novel biomarkers of T1D. This platform overcomes the challenges inherent to radio immunoassay and is able to detect different types of autoantibodies with 1 μL of human blood.