The integration of living cells with soft scaffolds can enable the fabrication of biological machines for tissue engineering and soft robotics. These cell-based biological machines can be defined as a set of sub-components consisting of living cells and cell-instructive micro-environments that could eventually perform a range of prescribed tasks. The realization of biological machines and their sub-components will require a number of suitable cell sources, biomaterials, and enabling technologies. Here, we review our group’s recent efforts towards this goal and of developing cell based biological machines. We have fabricated locomotive ‘‘bio-bots’’ using a 3D printer with hydrogels and living cells. The multi-material bio-bot consisted of a ‘biological bimorph’ cantilever structure as the actuator to power the bio-bot, and a base structure to define the asymmetric shape for locomotion. The cantilever structure was seeded with a sheet of contractile cardiomyocytes. We will also describe the development of a 3D-printed electrically paced skeletal muscle based ‘bio-bot’ devices where skeletal myoblasts embedded in ECM proteins compacted around a hydrogel structure were used to create the power source of the biological walking machine. While the specific applications are yet to be defined, these devices could have potential applications in drug delivery, power generation, and other biomimetic systems. We will also present the use of 3D printing to fabricate cell-laden hydrogel patches that allows the spatial release of pro-angiogenic growth factors and formation of new blood vessels when placed in contact with live tissue.