High-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies (XES, HERFD, RIXS, XRS) are now well-established characterization tools for providing insights of material’s electronic and geometric structure. The high brilliance synchrotron radiation beamlines have made feasible the routine study of the electronic structure and ligand environment of metal coordination compounds and active centers in metalloproteins, electrochemical process under in-situ conditions, as well as studies on catalytic systems under ambient conditions.
At SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory we have developed recently a set of high-resolution x-ray spectroscopic capabilities based on various multicrystal spectrometers. At SSRL we have built three multicrystal Johann spectrometers enabling XES/RIXS/HERDF techniques as well as X-ray Raman Spectroscopy. Representative examples of in-situ application in batteries, electrocatalysis, hydrogen storage, etc. will be shown and discussed from the ongoing spectroscopy programs of SSRL.