Mauricio Terrones: This tutorial will begin with a discussion of the historical facts of layered materials and will describe graphite and graphene. Definitions of graphenes will be introduced as well as the importance of defects in graphene and other layered structures. The synthesis methods of graphene will be explored, as well as the preparation of 3-dimensional scaffolds using graphene sheets. Other hybrid carbon materials with graphene, nanotubes and fullerenes will be described. Regarding other 2-dimensional systems, an introduction to BN and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) will be presented. The electronic and optical properties as a function of layers (down to a monolayer) will also be reviewed. Various synthetic approaches and the growth of single crystal monolayers, hybrid heterolayers and van der Waals solids will be introduced. Raman spectroscopic modes and photoluminescence properties in all these systems will be discussed as the number of layers increases from a monolayer to the bulk. In conclusion, some applications of all the materials described above will be presented and the perspectives in the field will be provided.
Christian Kisielowski: This presentation will review the properties of graphene and discuss the chemical modification strategies that can be used to control these properties. Graphene’s amazing mechanical, electrical, catalytic and possible biological properties have led to a frenzied level of research activity, uncovering significant improvements in those properties or in composite materials containing it. This level of activity has encountered challenges centered around the fabrication of graphene-containing devices. Chemistries, protocols and fabrication equipment need to be developed in order to enable the realization of devices. The graphene structures contained therein must retain at least some of the wonderful properties uncovered in the nanoworld. The presentation will also evaluate the parallel requirements of chemical modification to enable the rheological properties needed for many fabrication approaches, including fiber spinning and 2D/3D printing. Examples of devices in development for energy conversion (solar and themoelectrochemical cells) and storage (flexible batteries and capacitors), as well as biomedical applications to highlight the challenges, will be reviewed. All the answers are not yet known; there are compromises to confront. The tutorial will stimulate discussion and debate to discern possible paths forward.
David Officer: The presentation addresses investigations of graphene using aberration-corrected electron microscopy in scanning and broad beam modes. In recent years, a rich variety of two-dimensional materials is under investigation because of the unique physical properties. Among them, graphene stands out because of its outstanding mechanical strength and electronic properties. Since it consists of a single layer of carbon atom, challenging experimental investigations are probing for structural, optical and electronic properties.
Allan MacDonald: Graphene is a remarkably simple and robust two-dimensional material. This presentation will briefly review the electronic structure and the optical and transport properties of single- and few-layer graphene sheets, and then discuss the unusual many-electron physics which can be hosted by these materials.