Significant research has been carried out since the seventies of the last century on the physical and mechanical properties of NOCMAT as engineering materials at macro, meso, micro and nano levels. A functionally graded distribution of fibers in bamboo has been identified. Gradations were observed in longitudinal and radial directions. Bamboo in its natural habitat acts as a cantilever beam with a fixed support in the soil and is subjected to its own weight and wind load. Therefore, it has a naturally optimized structure to resist bending moments. The strengths are highest along the outside and lowest in the inside surfaces. In general, the strengths are also highest in those sections closer to the ground. Further studies of the fracture and toughening mechanisms in bamboo structures were carried out which will be presented in this Symposium. An advanced research on Non-Conventional Materials and Technologies (NOCMAT) has shown that it is now possible to produce high performance Fibre Reinforced Composites (FRC) and bamboo composites meeting any engineering demand. Therefore the challenge of the 21st century is to meet the need for cost-effective, durable and eco-friendly construction materials which will meet the global needs of infrastructure regeneration and rehabilitation which alone can enhance the quality of life for all the peoples of the world and in special in developing countries where these materials exist in abundance. In this presentation it is shown that a judicious combination of pozzolanic/cementitious materials, chemical admixtures fibres and bamboo can produce a wide range of FRC that are durable, strong and stiff, highly crack resistant, very ductile and capable of absorbing large amounts of energy. Such materials will find extensive applications in engineering. In particular, the development of durable natural fibre cement composites and bamboo poses a gigantic challenge to science and skills of engineering, a challenge which, if successful, can create the most exciting, eco-friendly construction material backed by an endless supply of renewable natural resources in our world.